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Cyclotron is a device used to accelerated positively charged particles (such as, α-particles, deuterons etc.) in order to acquire enough energy to carry out nuclear disintegration.
It is based on the fact that the electric field accelerates a charged particle and the magnetic field keeps it revolving in circular orbits of constant frequency.
It consists of two hollow D-shaped metallic chambers D1 and D2 called dees. The two dees are placed horizontally with a small gap separating them. The dees are connected to the source of high frequency electric field. The dees are enclosed in a metal box containing a gas at a low pressure of the order of 10–3 mm mercury. The whole apparatus is placed between the two poles of a strong electromagnet NS as shown in Fig 6. The magnetic field acts perpendicular to the plane of the dees (Fig. 7).
Fig. 6
Fig. 7

Cyclotron frequency

Time taken by ion to describe a semicircular path is given by 81720.png
If T = time period of oscillating electric field, then T = 2t = 2πm/qB and the cyclotron frequency v = (1/T) = (Bq/2πm)

Maximum energy of particle

Maximum energy gained by the charged particle,
where r0 = maximum radius of the circular path followed by the positive ion.

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