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Mirror Formula and Magnification

For a spherical mirror, if u = distance of object from pole, v = distance of image from pole, f = focal length, R = radius of curvature, O = size of object, I = size of image, then
Mirror formula 113137.png

Lateral magnification

When an object is placed perpendicular to the principle axis, then linear magnification is called lateral or transverse magnification.
Always use sign convention while solving the problems.

Axial magnification

When object lies along the principle axis, then its axial magnification,
If object is small,

Areal magnification

If a 2D-object is placed with its plane perpendicular to principle axis, then its areal magnification

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