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Points to Remember

  1. The first step in analyzing a logical-structure argument is to decide whether the original statement is valid. If it is, then the answer must be valid as well. If it is invalid, then the answer must be invalid. 
  2. Look for embedded if-then statements.
  3. An if-then statement, A—>B, tells us only two things:
    1. If A is true, then B is true as well.
    2. If B is false, then A is false as well (contrapositive).
  4. Affirming the conclusion fallacy:
  1. Denying the premise fallacy:
  1. Transitive property:
  1. DeMorgan’s Laws:
  1. A unless B:

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