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Synthesis Of Carboxylic Acids

By Oxidation:
Carboxylic acids can be prepared by the oxidation of primary alcohols, and aldehydes. An oxidizing agent such as KMnO4 can accomplish these conversions.
Sample reaction:

From Grignard Reagents
Another way to synthesize carboxylic acids is to react Grignard reagents with CO2. The Grignard reagent acts as a nucleophile toward the carbon dioxide. In an acidic medium the carboxylate entity formed is converted to carboxylic acid. Grignard reagents can be prepared by reacting alkyl halides with magnesium.
Sample reaction
From Alkyl Halides via Nitriles
Primary or secondary alkyl halides can be converted into nitriles (alkyl cyanide) by nucleophilic substitution. The nitriles formed can in turn be converted to carboxylic acids by hydrolysis.
Sample reaction
The cyanide ion is negatively charged and the negatively charged carbon atom has nucleophilic character. The reaction usually occurs via SN2 mechanism. The nitrile formed can be hydrolyzed to a carboxylic acid.


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