Coupon Accepted Successfully!


Hybridization Of Orbitals

The six electrons of a carbon atom are distributed in the orbitals as follows:

Electronic configuration    –    1s22s22p 2


image\25341 ch 14.png

sp3 Hybridization

The carbon atoms of alkanes (e.g., methane, ethane) are sp3 hybridized. In order to form the four bonds in methane, a carbon atom needs four half-filled orbitals. In order to have more free half-filled orbitals, the carbon atoms undergo hybridization.

image\25352 ch 14.png

image\29439 ch 14 page 181.png

The hybridization results in one half-filled 2s orbital, and three half-filled 2p orbitals (a total of four half-filled orbitals). These unpaired electrons form the sp3 hybridized carbon, which can form the four covalent bonds in the methane molecule. The four sp3 hybrids are directed to the corners of a tetrahedron with bond angles of 109.50.

sp2 Hybridization

In carbon-carbon double bonds, the carbons undergo another type of hybridization called the sp2 hybridization. In this hybridization, only one 2s, and two 2p orbitals are involved. The C=C contains a sigma (σ) bond and a pi (π) bond. The pi bond is formed by the unhybridized 2p orbital overlap. The three equal hybrids lie in an xy-plane with bond angles of 1200.

image\25367 ch 14.png

image\29430 ch 14 page 181.png

sp Hybridization

Yet another hybridization called the sp hybridization exists in carbon-carbon triple bonds. An sp hybridized carbon atom is bonded only to two other atoms. In this type of hybridization, one 2s orbital and one 2p orbital are involved. A carbon-carbon triple bond contains one sigma bond and two pi bonds.


image\Ch 14 sp Hybridization first graphic.png

image\29421 ch 14 page 182.png

Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name