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Introduction to Liquids, Solids, and Phase Transitions

In this chapter, we will explore the other two important phases of matter: liquids and solids. From your own experience, you probably have noticed that it is easier to handle liquids and solids than to handle gases. Gases have negligible intermolecular interactions and attractive forces. But this is not the case with either liquids or solids. They both have much stronger intermolecular forces than gases. These forces make substances exist as liquids and solids. As we go along, we will explore the ideas such as hydrogen bonding, London dispersion forces, and dipole interactions.
In addition to just knowing these phases, you will have to know the different theories and their implications, and how to work with some of the formulas involved. We will review the different kinds of molecular interactions that dictate the phase characteristics of molecules. The phase diagram that is discussed in this chapter is also important from the MCAT point of view.

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