Coupon Accepted Successfully!


The Solid State

A solid has a well-defined shape. Because of the tight packing of the molecules, solids can be considered almost incompressible. There are four types of solids:
  1. Ionic solid
  2. Metallic solid
  3. Molecular solid
  4. Network solid

Ionic Solid

An ionic solid consists of cations and anions which are held together by the electrostatic attraction between them. These attractive forces are very strong and thus ionic solids have high melting points. Sodium chloride (NaCl), and cesium chloride (CsCl) are examples of ionic solids.

Metallic Solid

A ​metallic solid consists of positive atomic cores surrounded by electrons. Almost all metals are solids at room temperature. The free electrons in metallic solids account for their superior electrical conductivity (e.g., iron, gold, silver).

Molecular Solid

A molecular solid consists of atoms or molecules held together by intermolecular attractive forces. In molecular solids, the attractive forces include hydrogen bonds and dipole-dipole forces (e.g., Ice [H2O (s)]).

Network Solid

Structure of diamond

In a network solid, the atoms are held together by large networks of covalent bonds. A perfect example is diamond. Because of such an intricate network (see Figure 7-3) of covalent bonding through the entire crystal, the diamond crystal itself can be considered as one big molecule. Each and every carbon in a diamond is covalently linked to four other carbon atoms. For these reasons, network solids have very high melting points. Other examples of network solids include graphite and asbestos.

Test Your Skills Now!
Take a Quiz now
Reviewer Name