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Types of Offer

  • Specific Offer: A specific offer is the one, which is made to a specific person or a group of persons. It can be accepted only by the person or group of persons to whom it is made.

Ravi asks to Suri, “Will you purchase my house for ₹ 1,00,000?” It is a specific offer made by Ravi to Suri and only Suri can accept this.

  • General Offer: A general offer is an offer which is made to the public in general and can be accepted by anyone who fulfils the terms and conditions of the offer.
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When the offer is accepted by the particular person, there is a contract between the offeror and that particular person. If a large number of persons accept the offer, there are as many contracts as the number of persons accepting the offer. Where a reward has been offered for giving a specific thing, acceptance can be made only by the first person who gives the information or finds such thing.
  • Counter Offer: When an offeree offers to accept the offer of the offeror, subject to some modification or condition, the offer of the offeree is called counter offer. Counter offer becomes an offer itself and therefore amounts to rejection of the original offer.

Akash asks Meena, “Will you purchase my car for ₹ 1, 00,000?” Meena replies, “I will purchase your car, if you sell it for ₹ 75,000.” In this case, the offer of Meena is called Counter Offer and it brings an end to the original offer. In other words the original offer is invalid.


Note: The counter offer results in a new offer and the original offer comes to an end and later on such original offer cannot be revived. The counter offer may be accepted or rejected by the other party (original offeror). If the other party accepts it, the contract is said to be concluded.

  • Cross Offer: When two parties make similar offers to each other without knowing the offer made by the other, and the terms and conditions in both the offers are identical, then the offers are called cross offer. In this case, no contract will be created as ones offer cannot be construed as acceptance by other.

Pankaj of Bombay offers Suraj of Calcutta, “Will you buy my car for ₹ 1, 00,000?” by writing a letter. At the same time, Suraj offers Pankaj, “Will you sell your car to me for ₹ 1, 00,000?” Neither Pankaj nor Suraj has knowledge of the other’s offer. The offers of Pankaj and Suraj are called cross offers the contract is not concluded as neither of the parties has accepted the offer of the other.


  • Standing Offer: An offer is a standing offer if it is intended to remain open for a specified period and can be accepted at any time during that period. When an organisation requires large quantities of goods from time to time, it is usual for the concern to invite tenders, through an advertisement, for the supply of the goods or services. The tender or offer is called a standing, open or continuing tender or offer.
The acceptance of tender or offer by the party, who has invited the tender, does not result in a binding contract, unless an actual order is placed. It merely amounts to intimation to the tenderer or offeror that this tender or offer will remain open during the specified period and that it would be accepted from time to time by ordering the required quantity. In this case, a binding contract comes into existence only when an order, in accordance with the terms of the offer, is placed. The acceptance of a standing offer has the effect that as and when the goods or services are required, an order is placed with the person who submitted tender and each time a distinct contract is made.
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  • Express Offer: When the offeror expressly communicates the offer, it is said to be an express Offer. The express communication of the offer may be made by word spoken or written.

Amar offers Akbar, “Will you buy my car for ₹ 1,00,000?” by writing a letter. The offer of Amar is an express offer.

  • Implied Offer: The offer which could be understood by conduct of parties or circumstances of case is called an implied offer. For instance, when a bus transport company runs its bus on a particular route, there is an implied offer by the bus transport company to carry passengers to the specified destination at a certain fare.

Public telephones or weighing machines in public places offer their services for a certain amount. The offer of these machines is called an implied offer.

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