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Introduction To Microprocessors And Microcontrollers


The microprocessor is a VLSI IC in which large numbers of transistors are placed.

The advantages of microprocessor-based design of a system are given below:

  • The manufacturing costs of the electronic products are generally lower, but the typical microprocessor-based designs cost 20 to 60 per cent of their TTL implementation costs.
  • The time and cost for the original development can be substantially lowered. Due to applications of microprocessors, the design time can be reduced by about two thirds. Presently, numbers of software are available to design a prototype system before implementation of the final product. Therefore, the design cycle will continue to decrease.
  • Consequently, microprocessor-based products can be brought to the market very early as per consumer requirement.
  • Microprocessor-based products have many complex functional capabilities and these products can be provided at reasonable cost. Therefore, the realization of better products for the same or lower prices are possible.
  • The smaller number of components in a microprocessor system increase the reliability of the final product.
  • Sometimes microprocessor-based products fail. The computational capability of a microprocessor can be used to perform self-diagnosing of the product to find error and help to remove faults. These devices also provide substantial reductions in service charges.

Microprocessors and microcontroller are also used to control traffic lights, appliances, motion control, position control, servo control, elevators, automation, electric car, and control of AC/DC machines, measurement and display of electrical and physical quantities such as voltage, current, frequency, phase angle, power factor, power, energy, force, displacement, speed, acceleration, temperature, pressure, stress, strain, deflection, water level, traffic-light control, overvoltage and overcurrent protection, speed control of dc and induction motors.



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