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Boundaries and Neighbours of India

The mainland of India extends from 8°4´N to 37°6´N latitudes (approximately 2933 km) and from 68°7´E to 97°25´E longitudes (approximately 3214 km). Cape Comorin (Kanyakumari) is the southernmost tip of the Indian landmass. Indira Point, situated in the Nicobar Islands, constitutes the southernmost point of the Indian Union. The country lies in the northern and eastern hemisphere. The Tropic of Cancer 45007.png passes through the centre of the country, dividing the country into two halves.

The tropical zone lies to the south of the Tropic of Cancer, whereas the temperate zone lies in the north. It passes through the states of Gujarat, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura and Mizoram. The 45014.pngE longitude, passing near Allahabad, is the Central Meridian of India.


The Indian Standard Time is based on the time of this longitude.

India’s neighbouring countries are China, Nepal and Bhutan in the north; Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east; Pakistan in the northwest; and Sri Lanka across the Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar in the south. The Arabian sea lies to the west of the Indian peninsula, the Bay of Bengal is in the east and the Indian Ocean is to the south of India. The islands such as Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal and Lakshadweep in the Arabian Sea are also part of the Indian territory. The total length of the coastline in India, including the islands, is 7500 km.

India’s location at the head of the Indian Ocean is strategically very significant. India commands the sea routes between Europe and Africa on one hand and Southeast Asia, far East and Australia on the other. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 has significantly reduced the distance between India and Europe.

People of India can be divided into five ethnic groups, namely Proto-Australoids, Negritos, Mongoloids, Mediterraneans or Dravidians and Vedic Aryans.

India is a union of 28 states and 6 union territories. Delhi is the National Capital, having a special status. In terms of area, Rajasthan is the largest state of India, and Goa is the smallest state.

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