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United Nations Organization

The First World War (1914-1918) caused a great loss to human lives and also property. In order to arrest such wars and to bring about peace in the world, an international organisation called the ‘League of Nations’ was created in 1919.


The Second World War (1939-945) caused far greater destruction than the First World War. The economic and political problems cropped up. The peace of the world was lost. This prompted the nations to establish an organisation to prevent such wars and to bring about peace in the world.


Conferences were held at Yalta, Dumbarton, Oakes, Potsdam and San francisco. Finally, on 26 June 1945, the charter or set of rules was signed by 51 nations including India and these are called the ‘Original Members’.


The United Nations started functioning from 24 October 1945 and this day is celebrated every year as the ‘UN Day’Today, there are 193 Members in the UN and its headquarters is at New York. South Sudan became its 193rd member in 2011.


The UN is an association of sovereign states who have bound themselves by a charter to maintain International Peace and Security. It is world’s largest International organisation. There are six organs in UN to fulfill its objectives. They are General Assembly, Security Council,

Trusteeship Council, Economic and Social Council, International Court of Justice and Secretariat. One of the objections of the UN is to bring about program and development in the world by solving the economic, social and cultural problems of the nations besides establishing peace and security. There are many agencies in UN to suggest solutions and also to solve International social, economic, technical, cultural, scientific and educational problems.


Some of the important specialised agencies are:

  1. World Health Organisation (WHO)
  2. Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)
  3. International Labour Organisation (ILO)
  4. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)
  5. United Nations International Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
  6. World Bank
  7. International Monetary Fund (IMF)

General Assembly

Security Council

Economic and Social Council

The Trusteeship Council


International Court of Justice

International parliament, all the members of UN are the members of this organ


•Discusses the problems disturbing peace of the world.

• Discusses the powers and functions of other organs.

•Considers the reports of Security Council or other organs.

•Approves the budget of UN.

• Admits the new members.

• Elects the non-permanent members, members to ICJ, and appoints secretary general.

• Annual session is held in the third week of September. The opening day is designated as ‘International Day of Peace’.

15 Members (5 Permanent members and 10 non-permanent members). USA, Russia, Britain, France and China are permanent members. Before 1965, there were 11 members
(5 permanent, 6 non-permanent).


•Discusses various problems facing the world.

• Takes action against the nation which disturbs peace of the world.

•Recommends the name of the person for Secretary General.

• Prepares budget.

54 members in the organ.


•Supervises the activities of the specialised agencies.

•Organises international conferences.

•Coordinates with specialised agencies.


1. To solve the problems of the countries which were not self-governing and to help such countries to become independent.

2. The task of Trusteeship Council completed in 1994 when ‘Palau’, the last trust territory became independent.

Headquarters New York


• Day-to-day working of UN

•Secretary General is head of the Secretariat.

• Present Secretary
Ban Ki-moon from South Korea.

World Court

Headquarters in Hague in Netherland.

There are 15 judges and the term is 9 years.


• Gives legal advice to the organs and specialised agencies of the UN.

• Settles disputes between the nations.

 Table-Organs of the United Nations


Sl. No

Specialised Agencies

Established Year

Head Quarters



The World Health Organization (WHO)


Geneva Switzerland

Provides better standard of health and keeps people free from dangerous and communicable diseases.

Promotes research work in the medical field.

Publishes periodicals and Journals.

Helps backward nations in eradicating malaria, smallpox, T.B, etc.


Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO)

16 October 1945

(16 October, ‘World Food Day’)


To relieve people from hunger and increase food production.

Train farmers in the new techniques of farming.

It promotes global exchange of knowledge about nutrition, food management and preventing epidemic animal diseases.


International Labour Organization (ILO)

(Noble Peace Prize in 1969)



Promotes welfare of working class.

It has brought out an international labour standard which ensures better package pay, medical facilities, insurance, hours of work, holiday, etc.


United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural (UNESCO)



Eradicates illiteracy and spreading scientific knowledge.

Organises cultural exchange programmes.

Translates world’s classics to different languages.

Protecting, renovating and preserving the monuments of world cultural heritage.


United Nations International Children’s Fund (UNICEF)


New York (USA)

Promoting the welfare of the children and women of the world.

Pre- and post-natal care of the child and the mother.

Creates awareness against discrimination of the girl child, child labour and exploitation of the children.


World Bank


Washington DC (USA)

Reduce economic disparities between the nations and help the nations in reconstruction.

Provides financial assistance to various developmental projects.

Settles the disputes between governments and private foreign investors.


International Monetary Fund (IMF)

1945, started functioning in 1947

Washington D.C (USA)

Helps the economically-weak countries to overcome their adverse balance of trade.

Provides credit facilities to members.

 Table-Specialised Agencies of UN


Objectives of United Nations

  1. To maintain peace and security in the world.
  2. To develop friendly relation among the nations.
  3. Collectively solve the international problems of social, economic, cultural and humanitarian nature.
  4. To promote respect of human rights, dignity of man and fundamental freedom.

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