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Spectrum is an ordered arrangement of waves according to their wavelengths.
For example, light is an electromagnetic wave. Electromagnetic waves can have different wavelengths.

An ordered arrangement of EM waves according to their wavelengths is called an electromagnetic spectrum.

Our eye is sensitive to only a very small part of this. This part is called an optical spectrum.


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Electromagnetic Spectrum

Scattering of Light

Light rays are scattered when the medium consists of tiny particles. Lord Rayleigh suggested that molecules of air also cause scattering of light. He showed that the intensity I of the scattered light is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the wavelength (λ) of the radiation. Thus, Description: 84458.png, where λ is the wavelength of the radiation.
This explains the blue colour of the sky.
Raman Effect In Rayleigh scattering, the wavelength (λ) of the scattered light is the same as that of the incident light. However, Sir C.V. Raman noticed that during scattering λ can change, the scattered light can have certain other wavelengths apart from the incident wavelength. This is called Raman effect.

Applications of Raman Effect Raman scattering is used for the following purposes:
  1. to study molecular structure of matter,
  2. to study rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules and
  3. to study the nature and strength of chemical bonding and binding forces in crystals.

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