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Backbone of Indian Economy.

Agriculture contributes to state revenue, employment, industry, food requirements, international trade etc.

Indian agriculture depends on monsoons. In India, agriculture is characterised by tradition techniques, which are most prevalent in intensive subsistence farming. Moreover, agriculture in India is marked by subdivision and fragmentation of land holdings.

With the Green Revolution introduced in the late 1960s, modern inputs like HYV seeds, chemical fertilisers, pesticides and irrigation facilities were introduced. Multiple cropping has resulted in increased productivity, mainly in wheat production, in Punjab and Haryana.



  • Low productivity
  • Land tenure system not implemented in all states
  • Lack of financial facility, especially to the small and marginal farmers to use modern inputs in their fields. Farmers with small land holdings cannot afford to avail of credit, irrigation facilities, purchase fertilisers and HYV seeds or farm machines and tools.
  • Seasonal unemployment and disguised unemployment are common. Small and marginal farmers are trapped in debt.


Remedial Measure:

  • Providing irrigation facilities
  • The Green Revolution (inputs such as HYV seeds, irrigation water, chemical fertilisers and pesticides, use of farm machines such as tractors, etc.)
  • Crop insurance
  • Providing financial facilities
  • Spread electricity to operate the pumps, which provide better irrigation and lesser dependence on the monsoon rains
  • Land reforms
    • Consolidation of land holdings
    • Land ceiling
    • Abolition of intermediaries
    • Abolition of zamindari system
  • Encourage non-farm activities such as shop-keeping, transportation, dairy farming and small-scale industry. Small and cottage industries use household members, working from their homes, using simple production methods. Volume of production is less; hence the profit margins are also less.

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