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Subsidiary Alliance (1798–1805)

Lord Wellesley introduced Subsidiary Alliance. Under the alliance, an Indian state which accepted the alliance had to maintain an English army within its territory. To meet the expenses of the army, it had to pay either in cash or transfer certain territories to the company. Those rulers who entered the Subsidiary Alliance lost their freedom to make friends or declare war on other rulers without the permission of the English. The Indian rulers who entered this alliance lost their independence completely. The native rulers who signed this were the Nizam of Hyderabad, Raja of Travancore, Raja of Tanjore, etc.

Doctrine of Lapse (1848–1856)

Another peaceful annexation policy of the British to annex the territories of India was the Doctrine of Lapse. Lord Dalhousie introduced this. According to this, the native rulers who did not have a natural heir to the throne has no right to adopt a son, his kingdom will be annexed by the British. Many Indian states annexed by this were Satara, Jaitpur, Sambalpur, Jhansi, Udaipur, Nagpur, etc.

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