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Contribution of Some Scientists

  • Parashara (100 bce) was an ancient Indian sage who wrote the book ‘Vrukshayurveda’ which described the medicinal values of many plants.
  • Aristotle, a Greek philosopher of the fourth century, studied life in a methodical way, by observing living beings and experimenting with them. Aristotle and Hippocrates arranged animals into four major groups, namely insects, birds, fishes and whales. Aristotle is called the ‘Father of Biology’.
  • Theophrastus is called the ‘Father of Botany’ who classified plants into four categories, namely trees, shrubs, under shrubs and herbs.
  • Charaka was the principal exponent of medical system called ‘kayachikitsa’. He is said to be the ‘Father of Ayurveda’. Charaka Samhita is a great book about Ayurveda.
  • Sushrutha, a great Indian surgeon, conducted as many as 300 types of surgical operations which he recorded in his book Sushrutha Samhita.
  • John Ray (1628–1705 A.D.), an English naturalist of the late seventeenth century, introduced the term ‘species’.
  • Carolus Linnaeus, a Swedish naturalist, also called ‘Father of Taxonomy’ described about 4000 ‘species’ of plants based primarily on features of stamens. He is remembered for introducing the system of ‘binomial nomenclature’, the scientific method of naming plants and animals, which is in use today.
  • Anton Van Leeuwenhoek, a Dutch businessman, was the first to invent the microscope. He discovered micro-organisms.
  • Robert Hooke designed the first compound microscope of greater magnification. This opened the gates to the microscopic forms of life.
  • German scientists Schleiden and Schwann proposed the cell theory.
  • Great pioneers such as Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, Edward Jenner, Joseph Lister and Alexander Fleming have contributed to the field of microbiology and the study of many diseases.
  • Gregor Johann Mendel formulated the laws of heredity and is called the ‘Father of Genetics’.
  • The theory of evolution was proposed by Charles Darwin, Lamarck, Hugo De Vries and others.
  • Many other Indian scientists of recent times such as J.C. Bose, P. Maheswari, B.G.L. Swamy and
  • Dr. Khorana have contributed to biology.

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