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Simple Machines

A simple machine is a device with the help of which a force applied at one point is made available at another point with a convenient change in magnitude or direction or both.
A simple machine cannot do work by itself. Energy has to be supplied to it or work has to be done on it. Then it is possible to derive some useful work from it. Thus, a simple machine has
  1. energy supplied to its input side and
  2. useful work is done by it at the output side.
Terms Commonly Used in the Study of Simple Machines
  1. Load (W): It is the force to be overcome by using a simple machine.
  2. Effort (P): It is the external force applied to a simple machine to overcome the load.
  3. Mechanical advantage (MA): It is the ratio of the magnitude of the load to be overcome to the magnitude of the effort.
    Description: 63622.png
  4. Velocity ratio (VR): If L and h are the displacements of the effort and the load, respectively, in a time tthen the velocity of the effort is L/t and the velocity of the load is h/t.
    Description: 63638.png
    Description: 63647.png
  5. Efficiency (E): It is the ratio of the useful work done (output) by the machine to the work done on the machine by the effort (input).
    Description: 63654.png
    Description: 63666.png
    Expression for efficiency in terms of MA and VR is as follows:
    Description: 63676.png

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