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  1. C++ programs consist of objects, classes, functions, variables, and other statements.
  2. The ‘C++’ keywords are reserved words by the compiler. All ‘C’ language keywords are valid in C++ and a few additional keywords by ANSI committee are also valid.
  3. Identifiers are names of variables, functions, and arrays. They are user-defined names, consisting of a sequence of letters and digits, with a letter as a first character.
  4. The constants in ‘C++’ are applicable to the values, which do not change during the execution of a program. The two types of constants are literal and symbolic.
  5. C++ supports all data types of C.
  6. The keywords signed, unsigned, short, and long are type modifiers. A type modifier changes the meaning of the base data type to produce a new data type.
  7. The void type is an empty data type.
  8. The enum is a keyword. It is used for declaring enumeration data types. C++ allows us to declare a variable of enum data type and enum without tag name.
  9. Variable are used to store constants, that is, information. A variable is a sequence of memory locations, which are used to store the assigned constant.
  10. C++ permits declaration of variables anywhere in the program.
  11. The initialization of variable at run-time is called as dynamic initialization.
  12. C++ supports all the operators of ‘C’. The list of newly introduced operators is described in this chapter.
  13. The referencing operator is used to define referencing variable. A reference variable prepares an alternative (alias) name for a previously defined variable.
  14. The asterisk (*) in a variable expression is used to declare a pointer to a given type.
  15. The scope access (or resolution) operator :: (two colons) allows a programmer to access a global (or file duration) name even if it is hidden by a local re-declaration of that name.
  16. The new operator creates an object and delete destroys the object. These operators are easy in writing as compared to malloc() and calloc().
  17. C++ reference types, declared with & operator, are nearly identical but not exactly the same as the pointer types. They declare aliases for object variables and allow the programmer to pass arguments by reference to functions.
  18. In C++, a symbol // (double slash) is used as a comment symbol and there is no termination symbol.

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