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  1. Like “C” language, the programs written in “C++” language highly depend on functions. The “C++” program is nothing but a combination of one or more functions.
  2. A function prototype declaration consists of function’s return type, name, and arguments list. When the programmer defines that function, the definition must be the same as its prototype declaration.
  3. In C++ it is possible to pass arguments by value or by reference. C++ reference type is declared with & operator and it is nearly identical but not exactly the same as pointer types. They declare aliases for objects variables and allow the programmer to pass arguments by reference to functions.
  4. An lvalue is an object locator and an expression that indicates an object.
  5. The statement x + y is not an lvalue; x + y = z is invalid because the expression on the left is not related to a variable. Such expressions are often called rvalues.
  6. C++ allows the programmer to assign default values in the function prototype declaration of the function. When the function is called with lesser parameters, then the default values are used for the operations.
  7. The constant variable can be declared using const keyword. The const keyword makes variable value stable. The constant variable should be initialized at the time of declaration.
  8. C++ provides a mechanism called inline function. When a function is declared as inline, the compiler copies the code of the function in the calling function.
  9. C++ makes it possible for the programmer to use the same function name for various times for different intentions. This is called function overloading or function polymorphism.
  10. The function modf() breaks double into integer and fraction elements, and the function modfl() breaks long double into integer and fraction elements.
  11. The functions ceil() and ceill() round up the given float number, whereas the functions floor() and floorl() round down the float number.
  12. The function abs() returns the absolute value of an integer. The fabs() returns the absolute value of a floating-point number and labs() returns the absolute value of a long number.

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