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Access time:- The amount of time it takes a computer to locate stored information.
ALGOL (ALGOrithmic Language):- An algebraic high level language.
Algorithm:- A sequence of precise and unambiguous instructions for solving a problem in a finite number of operations.
Alphanumeric:- A character set that contains letter, digits and other special characters such as $,@,*,% etc.
ALU (arithmetic logic unit):- a digital circuit that calculates an arithmetic operation (e.g., addition, subtraction) and logic operations between two numbers.
ANSI (American National Standards Institute):- A USA based national organization that establishes uniform standards in several fields of computers. A non-profit organization dedicated to creating trade and communications standards.
ATM (asynchronous transfer mode):- high bandwidth, cell-switching technology; designed to carry many different types of information, including voice, video, image, data, and graphics; another form of STDM (statistical time division multiplexing).
AS (Autonomous system):- collection of IP networks under the control of a single entity
autoexec.bat - A startup text file once used by DOS and used by Windows to provide backward-compatibility. It executes commands automatically during the boot process and is used to create a 16-bit environment.


BASIC:- BASIC or Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code was developed in the 1960s and is a computer programming language that enables people to write simplified programs. Now it has changed and grown and can be used to create more complex programs.
Backup:- The process of saving a copy of your files from your hard drive so that in the event of a hard drive failure, you will be able to recover the lost data.
Bandwidth:- Bandwidth is a word used to describe the amount of data that can be sent down a digital connection is a certain time period i.e how many bytes can be sent per second.
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS):- A set of programs stored in read-only memory. It is used when the computer starts up and it checks all the devices and hardware connections on a computer. If everything is functioning the boot up process will begin.
Boot (short for bootstrap):- To start a computer and load the operating system to prepare the computer to execute an application.
Buffer:- A holding area in memory that stores information temporarily.
BIT:- stands for binary digit or binary integer. It a smallest unit of data in a computer.
Blog:- A blog is an online diary or journal that is usually in chronological order that is normally about one topic. The entries are known as posts and people can comment on these posts on a blog.
Blue Ray:- Blu-ray is a recently developed optical disk format which can be used for holding for a huge amount of data in HD format. One disk is capable of containing 25 GB of data. A CD can only hold 700 MB of data while a DVD can hold 4.7 GB.
Bluetooth:- Bluetooth is a wireless connection that is used to transmit data between Bluetooth enabled devices at short range. Laptop, PDAs and mobile phones as well as scanners and printers use Bluetooth frequently.
Bps:- bits per second: common measure of data speed for computer modems and transmission carriers.
Byte:- The sequence of bits that represents a character. Each byte has 8 bits.


CD-ROM:- An acronym derived from compact disk-read only memory. A form optical storage. One compact disk can hold up to 250,000 text pages. It can also be used to store graphics, sound, and video.
Cell:- A box or rectangle within a table or spreadsheet where a column and a row intersect; an area in which information can be entered in the form of text or figures.
Character:- A single letter, figure, punctuation mark, or symbol produced by a keystroke on a computer.
Character set:- The complete set of characters, alphabetic, numeric, and symbolic.
Characters per second:- The number of characters printed in 1 second; a measurement frequency used to describe the speed of a printer.
Check box:- A small box that appears on screen alongside each option displayed in a dialog box. When an option is selected, an X or a check mark appears inside the box.
Chip: An integrated circuit used in computers.
Click:- To quickly pres and release a mouse button once while the cursor (mouse pointer) is positioned over a specific item on the screen.
Client/server computing:- A network of computers that consist of a file server and individual clients.
Clipboard:- A holding area in memory where information that has been copied or cut can be stored until the information is inserted elsewhere.
Column:- A vertical block of cells in a table or spreadsheet.
Command:- An instruction that causes a program or computer to perform a function. A command may be given by means of a special keystroke, or the command may be chosen from a menu.
Computer:- An electronic devise that is capable of (1) accepting, storing, and logically manipulating data or text that input and (2) processing and producing output (results or decisions) on the basis of stored programs of instructions.
Control menu:- An on-screen Windows element that appears in a box in the upper left corner of a window. The control menu allows the user the option of adjusting the size of the window, closing or reopening the window, or switching to another window.
Cookie:- Cookies are data that is sent to your computer when you have visited a Website. If you revisit the site the cookie will load particular pages depending on what information is contained in it.
Cracker:- The preferred term to refer to a computer criminal who penetrates a computer program to steal information or damage the program in some way.
Crash:- A malfunction (failure to function) in hardware or software that keeps a computer from functioning.
Crawler:- A Crawler or Web spider is a type of bot that searches the Internet in a specific, automated way and they are often used by search engines to refine searches.
Cursor:- A special character that indicates where the next typed character will appear on the display screen.


Data:- Information consisting of letter, numbers, symbols, sound, or images in a form that can be processed by a computer.
Database:- A stored collection of information.
Database management system:- The software needed to establish and maintain database and manage the stored information.
Debugging:- Locating and eliminating error in a program.
Defragment:- Defragment, or defragmenting is a method of increasing the performance of your computer by defragmenting the hard disk.
Default settings:- The pre-established settings that a program will follow unless the user changes them.
DHTML:- DHTML (Dynamic HTML) is a mixture of HTML, a scripting language (such as JavaScript) which is client side and Cascading Style Sheets to create interactive Web sites.
Delete:- A command to erase information in storage.
Desktop:- Desktop is the term used to describe your computer's first screen that contains your icons.
Desktop computer:- A microcomputer that is bigger (in size) than a laptop.
Desktop publishing:- A system that processes the text and graphics and, by means of page layout software and a laser printer, produces high-quality pages suitable for printing or in-house reproduction.
Dialog box:- A message box on the screen that supplies information to or requests information from the user.
Dictionary:- A program used to check the spelling of each word entered in the computer.
Directory:- A list of the files stored on a disk. A folder known as dir.
Disk:- A random-access, magnetically coated storage medium used to store and retrieve information.
Disk drive:- The component of a computer into which a disk is inserted so that it can be reads or written on.
Diskette:- A small, no rigid disk with limited storage capacity. Also know as a floppy disk.
Display screen:- A devise similar to a television screen and used on a computer to display text and graphics.
DNS:- DNS (Domain Name Server) is a storage system that contains domain and host names on a sort of allocated database on the Internet and other networks.
Document:- Any printed business communication for example, a letter, memo, report, table, or form.
Domain:- Typically, a three letter element in a Web address or an e-mail address. The domain, commonly referred to as the zone, indicates the type of organization that owns the computer being identified in the address. For example,. Com signifies a commercial organization; .edu signifies an educational institution.
Domain name:- the second part of an e-mail address what follows the @symbol. The name of the computer intended to receive an e-mail message. In Web addresses (URLs) this element is referred to as the host name.
DOS:- An acronym derived from disk operating system. A program that allows the computer to manage the storage of information on disks and control as other aspects of a computer’s operation.
Dot matrix printer:- A printer that uses pins to produce characters made up of small dots.
Double-click:- To quickly press and release a mouse button twice while the cursor is positioned over a specific item on the screen.
Download:- To transfer information to the user’s computer from another computer.
Drag-and drop editing:- A software feature that allows the user to (1) highlight text to be moved and (2) use a mouse to drag the text to a new location.


Electronic Data Interchange (EDI):- EDI is the inter-organizational exchange of business documentation in structured, machine-processable form. EDI is a way of replacing paper documents, and replacing traditional methods of transmission such as mail, phone, or in-person delivery with electronic transmission.
E-mail:- The term e-mail (short for electronic mail) refers to the transfer of messages or documents between users connected by an electronic network.
Enter:- To input data into memory.
Escape key:- A key that permits the user to leave one segment of a program and move to another.
Execute:- To perform an action specified by the user or the program.
Extranet:- A technology that permits users of one organization’s intranet to enter portions of another organization’s intranet in order to conduct business transactions or collaborate on joint projects.
E-zine:- The term e-zine refers to a magazine published in an electronic format. Also called Webzine.


Firmware:- Firmware is a combination of software and hardware. Computer chips that have data or programs recorded on them are firmware
Field:- A group of related characters treated as a unit; also the area reserved for the entry of a specified piece of information.
File:- A collection of information stored electronically and treated as a unit by a computer. Every file must have its own distinctive name.
File name:- the name assigned to a file stored on a disk. e.g manav.doc
File transfer protocol (FTP):- A set of guidelines or standards that establish the format in which files can be transmitted from one computer to another.
Firewall:- Software that prevents unauthorized persons from accessing certain parts of a program, database, or network.
Flash Memory:- Flash Memory is a kind of EERROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) and is normally used to store BIOS settings in the ROM of a computer. Flash memory can also be used in mobile phones and other devices.
Freeware:- Copyrighted software that is available for use without charge.
Function keys:- Keys on a keyboard that give special commands to the computer for example, to set margins or tabs.


GIF:- GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is a term used to describe a common graphic image that is often seen on the Internet and online services.
GIS:- GIS (Geographical Information Systems) is the term for a collection of tools that collect and interpret information regarding the Earths surface. It is used to create maps and charts and 3D models which represent the Earth's surface.
GIGO:- Garbage in, garbage out. In other words, your computer output is only as good as your computer input.
Gopher:- The term gopher refers to a protocol used for locating and transferring information on the Internet. The use of gopher is diminishing as the use of the Web’s hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) gains in popularity.
Graphics:- Pictures or images presented or stored using a computer.


Hard Disk Drive (HDD): Also popularly known as either the Hard Disk or Hard Drive. This is the most popular computer data storage device and can hold data upto 1 T.B
Hacker:- A dedicated computer programmer. The term hacker is sometimes used erroneously to refer to a computer criminal who penetrates and damages a computer program. The preferred term for a computer criminal is cracker.
Handheld computer:- A portable computer smaller than a notebook computer. Also called a palmtop computer.
Hard copy:- Text or graphics printed on paper; also called a printout.
Hardware:- The physical components of a computer: the central processing unit, the display screen, the keyboard, the disk drive, and the printer.
HDTV:- HDTV (High Definition Television) is a new video standard that is of a high quality has been created in order to replace the traditional SDTV. It has many advantages over SDTV which include: digital signals, which reduce interference and improve picture quality. HDTV also has a higher resolution which further improves picture quality as it is finer and sharper.
Header:- Repetitive information that appears at the top of every page of a document. A page number is a common header.
Hit:- A Hit is the term used to describe a file request that is on a web server. Hits are not an accurate way of counting the traffic to your web site however as each graphic file and HTML document will be classed as one hit. A single request for information made by a client computer from a Web server. The popularity of a given Web site is measured by the number of its it receives.
Home:- The upper left corner of the display screen; the starting position of a page or document.
Home page:- The main page for a Web site established by an organization or an individual; it usually serves as the entrance for a series of related pages.
Host computer:- A computer that provides information or a service to other computers on the Internet. Every host computer has its own unique host name.
Hot key:- A keyboard shortcut that allows quick access to a command or menu option.
HUB:- A Hub is a device that enables a number of computers to be connected together in a network and it acts as a central connection.
Hypermedia:- An extension of hypertext that integrates audio, video, and graphics with text.
Hyperlink:- A Hyperlink is a link within a body of hypertext that allows direct access to the referenced text within another document.
Hypertext:- A technology that links text in one part of a document with related text in another part of the document or in other documents. A user can quickly find the related text by clicking on the appropriate keyword, key phrase, icon, or button.
Hypertext markup language (HTML):- The formatting language used to establish the appearance of a Web page.
Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP):- The protocol used on the World Wide Web that permits Web clients (Web browsers to communicate with Web servers). This protocol allows programmers to embed hyperlinks in Web documents using hypertext markup language.


Ink-jet printer:- A no impact printer that forms characters by spraying tiny, electrically charged ink droplets on paper.
Input:- Information entered into the computer for processing.
Integrated circuit:- Multiple electronic components combined on a tiny silicon chip.
Integrated software:- Software that combines in one program a number of functions normally performed by separate programs.
Interface:- The software that controls the interaction between the hardware and the user.
Internet:- Internet is a network of network. Internet refers to the vast amount of inter-connected networks or computers and servers that use the TCP/IP Protocol to communicate with each other.
Internet community:- A group of individuals with common interests, who frequently exchange ideas on the Internet.
Internet service provider (ISP):- An organization that provides access to the Internet for a fee. Companies like America Online are more properly referred to as a commercial online services because they offer many other services in addition to Internet access.
Intranet:- A private network established by an organization for the exclusive use of its employees. Firewalls prevent outsiders from gaining access to an organization’s intranet.


Java:- A programming high level language designed for programs or applets used over the Internet. It is an example of OOPS.
JPEG (Joint Pic Experts Group):- A format for storing complex graphics in compressed form. The file extension .jpg indicates that a particular file uses this format.
Justification:- Aligning lines of text at the left margin, the right margin, both margins, or the center. Text aligned at both margins is considered fully justified.


Keyboard:- Keyboard known as standard input device. The device used to enter information into a computer.
Kilobyte:- A measurement of the storage capacity of a computer. One kilobyte represents 1024 bytes.


LAN (Local Area Network):- A computer network that covers small area usually within a room, one building etc.
Language:- The characters and procedures used to write programs that a computer is designed to understand.
Laptop Computer:- A portable computer slightly larger than a netbook computer. It is easy to carry anywhere.
Laser printer:- A non-impact printer that produces sharper text and graphics than any other type of printer.
Liquid crystal display (LCD):- A type of monitor typically used on laptop computers or portable computers.
Login:- This is the name you use to gain access to your computer system, a program, the Internet, and some pages that require “membership” on the Internet. This is also a term used as a verb to mean to “login” or enter your computer system.
Log off:- To exit or leave a computer system.
Log on:- To access a computer system.


Megabyte:- 1 megabyte equal to 1 million byte.
MIDI:- MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is the term used for the tool that musicians use in order to link instruments which are electrical to computer equipment.
Microcomputer:- A small and relatively inexpensive computer, commonly consisting of a display screen, a keyboard, a central processing unit, one or more disk drives, and a private printer, with limited storage based upon a microprocessor. e.g PC.
Modem:- Modem. An acronym derived from modulator/demodulator. A device that (1) converts digital signals into tones for transmission over telephone lines and (2) converts the tones back into digital signals at the receiving end.
MPEG:- MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group) is a standard developing group that defines the standards for digital video and audio compression. The term can also be used with reference to a type of video or audio file that contains the same quality as a standard recording.
Mouse:- Mouse is standard pointing device. You can use mouse only in GUI environment. A hand operated electronic device used to move a cursor or pointer on the display screen.
Multimedia:- Using a computer to combine text, sound, graphics, and video. Examples include: games, and interactive software and some educational software.
Multitasking- the ability of a computer to execute more than one program at a time.


Network:- Any two or more computers that are connected to share information and resources are networked, or connected, together. When two or more networks are connected together, this is called an Internet.
Netiquette:- A set of guidelines of formatting and composing e-mail messages.
Newsgroup:- An electronic discussion group maintained over the Internet or tied into a bulletin board system. Each newsgroup is typically organized around a specific interest or matter of concern. Also called a forum.


Offline:- Referring to the state in which a computer is temporarily or permanently unable to communicate with another computer.
Off-screen:- Referring to any computer function that does not produce a display on the screen.
Object linking and embedding (OLE):- A process that permits the user to take material (referred to as an object) from one source and insert (embed) it in another document. If the user subsequently makes changes in the original material, those changes will be automatically transferred to the second document as a result of the OLE linking process
Online:- Referring to the state in which a computer is turned on and ready to communicate with other computers.
Onscreen:- Referring to anything displayed on a computer screen.
Open:- To transfer a file from a disk into a computer’s memory.
Open Source:- Open Source or OSS (Open Source Software) is a way of sharing software that is under license.
Optical Media:- Optical Media means any disks that can be read by a laser such as CDs, DVDs, CD-ROMs etc.
Optical character reader (OCR):- A device that can scan text from hard copy and enter it automatically into a computer for storage or editing.
Output:- The results of a computer operation.


PDA:- PDAs (Personal Digital Assistant) are a small hand held device that acts very much like an electronic notebook, diary and calculator - you can even access the Internet with them.
Password:- A user’s secret identification code, required to access stored material. A procedure intended to prevent information from being accessed by unauthorized persons.
Paste:- A command that transfers information from a clipboard and inserts it in another location.
PDF (Portable Document Format):- is a multi-platform format for files that allows people to view a document from a range of applications on any computer and it will look the same. In order to view a PDF document you must have Adobe reader installed on your computer.
Personal digital assistant (PDA):- A palm sized, handheld computer.
PHP:- PHP is a programming language that is open source. It is mainly used for applications that are server side and it is useful in the development of dynamic web content.
Port:- A port is actually a socket on the back or front of your computer system that allows you to connect other devices to your computer, such as your mouse, keyboard, printers, and scanners.
Print preview:- A software feature that reduces the pages of a document so that a full page can be seen on the screen before being printed. This feature permits the user to spot and correct problems.
Printers:- Output devices of various types that produce copy on paper.
Printout:- The paper copy of information produced on a printer.
Program:- Set of instruction known as program. The instructions that a computer needs to perform various functions.
Protocol:- A set of standards that permits computers to exchange information and communicate with each other.


QBASIC:- QBASIC is a type of programming language that is based in DOS that interprets the language.
Query:- Query is the term used when an object requests some information from within a database and subsequently a database of the requested information is created.
QuickTime:- QuickTime is an Apple developed multimedia technology. It is used for making and storing audio and video (.mov) files. The software is available for most operating systems. 


RAM:- RAM (Random Access Memory) is a memory system that is made of chips attached to the computers motherboard. It is a read/write memory and also it is a temp or volatile memory.
ROM:- ROM (Read Only Memory) is the memory that holds information about the hardwired instructions used when a computer boots up. It is a permanent or non-volatile memory.
Runtime:- Runtime is the name for the state that a program is in when it is running. The term is normally used by programmers when a problem or error has occurred and these are known as runtime errors. Memory leaks are a good example of a runtime error. 


Scanner:- An input device that can copy a printed page into a computer’s memory, thus doing away with the need to type the copy. A scanner can also convert artwork and photographs into a digital format and store these in memory.
Screen saver:- A program that changes the screen display while the user is away from the computer. Without the use of a screen saver, a screen image that remains on display for any length of time can damage the screen.
Soft copy:- Information shown on the display screen.
Software:- Set of program known as software.
Speakers:- Devices that allow you to hear sound from the computer. Speaker is a output device.
Shockwave:- This is a "plug-in" to the browser that allows you to view interactive Web pages that contain games, movies, advertisements, etc. This browser is free and available to anyone on the Web.
Spam:- Spam known as a junk mail. SPAM or Spamming is used to send unsolicited messages in large volumes through any medium that is uses electronic communication. The most common form of spam is e-mailing advertising.
Split screen:- The ability of some programs to display information in two or more different areas on the screen at the same time.
Spreadsheet:- A program that provides a worksheet with rows and columns to be used for calculations and the preparation of reports.
Surf:- This is a slang term meaning to move from one Internet location to another, simply by clicking on hyperlinks.


Telecommunications:- The process of sending and receiving information by means of telephones, satellites, and others devices.
Teleconferencing:- Conducting a conference by using computers, video, and telecommunications to share sound and images with others at remote sites.
Telnet:- A protocol that allows a computer to connect with a host computer on the Internet.
Template:- A pre-established format for a document, stored in a computer. The template determines the margins, the type style and size to be used for the text, placement instructions for various elements and design specifications for certain items.
Terminal:- Any device that can transmit or receive electronic information.
Text:- The information displayed on a screen or printed on paper.


URL:- This is short for Uniform Resource Locator. This is basically the Internet “address” that you type in to access a particular site on the Web.
Universal Serial Bus (USB). The most popular method for connecting external devices to the PC.
Upload:- To transfer information from a client computer to a host computer.
User Name:- This is the name that you use to “sign on” with an Internet Service Provider. In addition to your registered “user name” you will also use a password.
USENET:- This is like a giant “bulletin board” on the Internet that offers a large number of Newsgroups that focus on a variety of topics ranging from news to fan clubs to stock information.
User-friendly:- Describes hardware or software that is easy to use.


Virus:- A piece of computer code designed as a prank or malicious act to spread from one computer to another by attacking itself to other programs. Some viruses simply cause a
humorous message to appear on the screen, some cause minor glitches, and some cause serious damage to a computer’s memory or disks.
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP):- The transmission of voice communications by means of the Internet Protocol. VoIP is an inexpensive alternative to long-distance telephone calls.


Webcam:- A video camera that sends live images over the Internet to a Web site
Web browser:- A Software that permits a user, with a click of a mouse, to locate, display, and download text, video, audio, and graphics stored in a host computer on the Web. The most common Web browsers now in use are Google, Netscape Navigator, and Microsoft Explorer.
Wi-Fi (Wireless fidelity):- A process that permits high-speed wireless transmission of data.
Wizard:- A feature of Microsoft Word software that helps a user create a customized document; it asks the user questions about formatting and content options and uses the answer to create the document.
Worm:- A type of computer virus that runs a program to destroy data on a user’s hard drive. Worms spread by sending copies of themselves to everyone on the user’s list of e-mail addresses.
Word processing:- The electronic processing of creating, formatting, editing, proofreading, and printing documents.
Workstation:- A desktop computer than runs applications and serves as an access point in a local area network.
WWW:- This is short for the “World Wide Web”. It represents the entire network of different resources that can be used by you on the Internet. The World Wide Web allows you access to people, places, things and information, all over the World.
WYSIWYG:- An acronym derived from what you see is what you get.


Zombie:- A computer that has been hijacked by a cracker without the owner’s knowledge and used to perform malicious tasks on the Internet.

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