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Exploring the Internet using a Browser

To Start Internet  Double Click on Browser’s Icon on your desktop.

Tool Bars of the browser:-
  • Back button:- Lets you return to pages you've viewed, beginning with the most recent. Right-click the Back button and select from a list of recently visited sites.
  • Forward. Lets you move forward through pages you've viewed using the Back button. Right-click the Forward button and select from a list of recently visited sites.
  • Stop:- Halts the process of downloading a Web page. Click this if you want to stop downloading a page for any reason. 
  • Refresh:- Updates any Web page stored in your disk cache with the latest content. Refresh button gets the information directly from the server and Reload button gets information from your disk cache.
  • Home:- Returns you to your home page. You can designate any Web page as your home page.
  • Search:- Displays a choice of popular Internet search engines in the left pane. Your search results appear in the left pane. When you click a link, the page appears in the right pane, so you don't lose sight of your search results.
  • Favorites:- Displays a list of the sites you have marked. Click any item in the list to jump to it.
  • History:- Shows a list of Web sites you've visited.
  • Print:- Prints the page you're viewing. This is one way to save information from the Internet so that you don't have to reconnect to view it again You can even print the URL associated with each hyperlink, making it easy to navigate to the site later.
  • Edit:- Opens a file in the Microsoft Word, word processor that contains the HTML code for the page you're viewing so you can see and even edit it. 

Hype Text Transfer protocol (HTTP)

There are two main modes of transferring file over the World Wide Web, one is FTP (file transfer protocol) and other is HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) Which is the set of rules for transferring files (text, graphic images, sound, video, and other multimedia files) on the World Wide Web. HTTP is an application protocol that runs on top of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. Whereas, FTP is used to transfer bulk files.


Note:- HTTP protocol for communication between web browser and servers.

Facilities on the Internet

  • E-Mail
  • Chatting
  • Upload and download files
  • Search Engine
Chatting:- Chatting known as instant messaging. In this type of communication participants type messages to other chat group participants and receiver response instantly which they can read on the screen. Some sites also provide audio/video chat that may be performed with the help of web cam. 

Upload and Download:- Copying file from the external sources to the computer is known as downloading and sending file or data from your computer to the external source is known as uploading.

Search Engine:- Search engine is a website that allows you to search desired information from a vast database of web pages on WWW. Any words found on the web pages visited by the search engine are stored in the search engine database.


Note:- Search Engine were introduced like LYCOS in 1993, WEB CROWLER in 1994, Yahoo and ALTA


VISTA in 1995, GOOGLE in 1998. BING introduced by Microsoft as search Engine.

Plug-Ins and Helper Programs:- Web browsers are limited in their capabilities as far as interpreting those documents which are not in HTML format. However, a browser can be extended in its capability by adding small applications programs. Such programs that run within the browser are known as plug-ins. A number of plug-ins are available from various vendors. Some such plug-ins are:
  • Media Player
  • Acrobat Reader
  • Shock Wave etc.
 E-Mail (Electronic mail)

Email allows us to send and receive messages. You can attach picture, video, sound to your email messages. Email addresses can be obtained for free or with cost from yahoo, indiatimes, hotmail, gmail etc.


In 1971, email address format using @ was created to separate user id and domain name. Compuserve became the first service provider to offer email facility to PC users in 1979.


Folders on Email page:-

  • INBOX : Contains the received messages.
  • Sent/OUTBOX: Contains the messages you have sent to others.
  • Compose: This link opens the page where you write the message for sending to others.
  • Spam/Bulk: Unwanted commercial messages.
  • Drafts: Messages you have created but not sent.
  • Trash: The received messages those you have deleted.

E-Mail address format:-


fac.manav2010 -> user name

gmail -> host name

.com -> type of domain


Screen of Email:

Compose Mail screen



Email Protection against Viruses


There are some characteristics of e-mail messages and attachments that may indicate they are unsafe to open. Characteristics include:

  • e-mail from unknown sender
  • e-mail from a known sender, but subject line does not make sense
  • message attachment contains filename extension associated with viruses
  • message contains links to destinations unrecognizable to the user

User will successfully avoid virus infection by applying knowledge of these e-mail characteristics and taking appropriate action when reading e-mail (i.e. open message or delete it).

 Email Spoofing


E-mail spoofing is e-mail activity in which the sender address and other parts of the e-mail header are altered to appear as though the e-mail originated from a different source.


Spoofing is the creation of TCP/IP packets using somebody else's IP address. Routers use the "destination IP" address in order to forward packets through the Internet, but ignore the "source IP" address. That address is only used by the destination machine when it responds back to the source.


A common misconception is that "IP spoofing" can be used to hide your IP address while surfing the Internet, chatting on-line, sending e-mail, and so forth.

Plug-Ins and Helper Programs

Web browsers are limited in their capabilities as far as interpreting those documents which are not in HTML format. However, a browser can be extended in its capability by adding small applications programs. Such programs that run within the browser are known as plug-ins. A number of plug-ins are available from various vendors. Some such plug-ins are:
  • Media Player
  • Acrobat Reader
  • Shock Wave
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

A URL is a formatted text string used by Web browsers, email clients and other software to identify a network resource on the Internet. Network resources are files that can be plain Web pages, other text documents, graphics, or programs.

Format of URL:-
Address of website is of the following format:-

http -> hyper text transfer protocol
www -> world wide web
Google -> domain name
.com -> type of domain
Types of Domains

Various types of domain are used on internet to distinguish between the types of websites like:

.com -> commercial
.edu or ac -> educational or academic
.mil -> military
.net -> belonging to networking or internet service provider company
.org -> organizational
.gov -> government
.info -> informational sites


Important Notes

E-mail is developed: Ray Tomlinson introduces network e-mail in 1972.  The first messaging system to send messages across a network to other users.

  • TCP is developed:- Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn design TCP during 1973.
  • First commercial network: A commercial version of ARPANET known as Telenet is introduced in 1974 and considered by many to be the first Internet Service Provider (ISP).
  • Ethernet is conceived: Bob Metcalfe develops Ethernet idea in 1973.
  • DNS is introduced: Paul Mockapetris and Jon Postel introduce DNS in 1984.
  • HTML: In 1990 Tim Berners-Lee develops HTML, which made a huge contribution to how we navigate and view the Internet today.

Some Popular Terms on the Internet



A cookie is a small message sent by the web server to your web client. This message is stored by the browser as a text file. The basic purpose of cookies is to store information needed by a server at the user end only. The cookie is used to send information back to the web server each time the browser requests a page from the server.


Internet Relay Chat (IRC):

IRC is multi user chat network where people around the world can chat and talk in channels or in private. To use IRC, you must install IRC client on your computer. Using this client, you can connect to an IRC server, which is connected to other IRC networks.


Social Networking:

A social network is a network of individuals which have some sort of interdependence on each other. This interdependence may be in the form of friendship, common causes and so on. A social networking service may be offered through a web site on the Internet. Some of the popular social networking services are - Facebook, Twitter, Linkedln, MySpace, etc.



Blog is a website where entries are written as information or news on a particular subject. You can choose any subject for writing a blog like food, health or information about anything.



The most common web server (or HTTP server) software on the Internet. Apache is an open-source application originally created from a series of changes ("patches") made to a web server written at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, the same place the Mosaic web browser was created. 



A tool (software) for finding files stored on anonymous FTP sites. You need to know the exact file name or a substring of it. By 1999 Archie had been almost completely replaced by web-based search engines. 


BITNET (Because It's Time NETwork or Because It's There NETwork):

A network of educational sites separate from the Internet, but e-mail is freely exchanged between BITNET and the Internet. Listservs®, a popular form of e-mail discussion groups, originated on BITNET. At its peak (the late 1980's and early 1990's) BITNET machines were usually mainframes, often running IBM's MVS operating system. BITNET is probably the only international network that is shrinking.



An intranet that is accessible to computers that are not physically part of a company’s own private network, but that is not accessible to the general public. For example, to allow vendors and business partners to access a company web site. Often an intranet will make use of a Virtual Private Network (VPN).

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