Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions.
In the development of Renaissance literature, we are taken much further afield. While Italy was the home of the most famous literary figures of the Renaissance, a literature typical of that period can be found in France, England, Germany, and Spain. The evolution of literature from a type dictated by Churchmen and scholastics to one embodying secularism and individualism is similar to what took place in art. Renaissance literature has a strong dose of individualism and specific experience, a widening contact between the writer and everything connected with man. Interest in the scientific study of composition were results of classical influences. Scientific dictionaries for Netherlandish, Italian, German, French, and Spanish were prepared in the 16th century. Von Gesner published (1553) in Latin an analysis of more than 1000 spoken languages, which was the first step towards comparative philology.
Literary criticism had begun by the middle of the 16th century. A group in France with Ronsard as their head, organized a society to reform the French language. That a similar movement was under way in England is shown in a famous work by Sir Philip Sidney, Apologie for Poetrie. While most of these works were efforts to revive the classical spirit if not the classical language, it is evident that all over Europe vernacular prose was gradually being raised to a position of literary dignity.
The Renaissance literature possesses the characteristic: