Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.
There are many, of course, who desire no alternation and when it is attempted, will oppose it. They have found the existing social order profitable. They desire only such change as will insure that they are profitable in the future. There are however, others who are conscious of a desire for a new social order, but why do not grasp the implications of their desire. Unless they take the pains not only to act, but also to reflect, they will end by affecting nothing. When they desire to place economic life on a better foundation, they can only repeat, parrot-wise, the word, “Productivity”, because that is the word that rises first to their minds, regardless of the fact that productivity is the foundation on which economic life is already based. They forget that in ninetenth century which saw the greatest increase in productivity economic discontent was most acute. When they are touched by social compunction, they can think of nothing more original than the diminution of poverty. They do not understand that poverty is a symptom and a consequence of social disorder which demoralize a few by excessive riches at the same time as it demoralizes that poor by excessive poverty.
“But”, they say, “increased production is important,” Of course it is—plenty is good, and scarcity evil. But plenty depends upon cooperative effort, and cooperation the ruling class and the rich despise.
Yet all the time, the principles upon which industry should be based to secure plenty for all in society are simple, however difficult it may be to apply them; and if they are over looked, it is not because they are difficult, but because they are elementary. They are simple because industry is simple: in its essence, it is nothing more mysterious than a body of men associated, in various degrees of competition and cooperation, to win their livelihood by providing the community with goods and services. Whether it is agriculture or handicrafts or large and complicated enterprises like shipbuilding, its function is service, its method is association. Because its function is service, an industry has duties towards the community; it also has its own rights. Because its method is association, the different parties within it have rights and duties towards each other and the neglect or perversion of these involves oppression. The condition of a proper organization of industry is therefore permanent, unchanging and easy to understand. They are the same in all essentials in both poor and rich societies. In both it is absolutely necessary that the principles on which the economic order of society is founded should justify themselves to the conscience of decent men.
The writer is critical of