Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.
The impact of the Industrial Revolution was a positive experience for some, but it was a time of great difficulty for others. Since the demands for reforms and protection for workers arose, unions began to be formed. That was how the evils of the Industrial Revolution were addressed in England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Unions are voluntary associations joined by workers. The Combination Act of 1800, which hindered the growth of unions, states that the goal of every workman entering into any combination should not be obtaining an advance of wages, or to lessen or alter the hours, or influencing any other to quit his work. Any workman who did so shall be committed to jail. Although the Combination Act of 1800 prevented the growth of unions, Ralph Chaplin believed that a worker should joint the union. He stated that there can be no power greater anywhere beneath the sun, but the unions, which makes it strong. Since there were so many workers working in bad conditions, the labour laws came to action.
The Health and Morals Act of 1802 limited Children under fourteen from working over twelve hours a day.
The Factory Act of 1833, which enacted that no person under 18 years of age shall be allowed to work at night in machinery. It allowed the children under 18 to work less than 12 hours a day or less than 69 hours in any one week. There was a ten hours act, which said that the women or children’s workday limits are 10 hours.
Socialism is one of the roles of government in the economy. Adam Smith who is the father of capitalism believes in laissez-faire (hands off) government. He believes all production should be sold at best possible lowest price. While Adam Smith believes in capitalism, Engel is criticising it. Engel believes the capitalism seizes everything for itself but the poor retain nothing. Karl Marx, the author of a 23 page pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto, and Engels recommend that all the working men of all countries should unite and overthrow all existing social conditions. Both Marx and Engel are communists, they believe in Communism. They argue that human societies have always been divided into warring classes, but everyone should be equal.
The evils of the Industrial Revolution addressed in England in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were working conditions, lack of necessities, urbanisation, and education. The working conditions were terrible so it came up with labour laws that kept workers from working all day.
Labour laws were significant as