Read each of the following passages and answer the items that follow. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.
Some modern anthropologists hold that biological evolution has shaped not only human morphology but also human behaviour. The role those anthropologists ascribe to evolution is not of dictating the details of human behaviour but one of imposing constraints-ways of feeling, thinking, and acting that “come naturally” in archetypal situations in any culture. Our “frailties”—emotions and motives such as rage, fear, greed, gluttony, joy, lust, love—may be a very mixed assortment quality: we are, as we say, “in the grip” of them. And thus they give us our sense of constraints.
Unhappily, some of those frailties our need for ever-increasing security among them are presently maladaptive. Yet beneath the overlay of cultural detail, they, too, are said to be biological in direction, and therefore as natural to us as are our appendixes. We would need to comprehend throughly their adaptive origins in order to understand how badly they guide us now. And we might then begin to resist their pressure.
The perils of intense cold may be counteracted by