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Could you find our sanguivorous actor? He is Dharmendra, famous for the expletive-dripping threat he used to shout at his enemies in almost every movie: “Kutte! Kaminey! Main teraa khoon pee jaaunga!”



IE reudh-  red

The English 'red' has its arisen from Indo-European root reudh-.



The Sanskrit word for red is rakt. Raktim means ‘having a red-tinge’, raktata is redness and the word raktaambar is used for an ascetic dressed in red. Rakt also means blood, because of the red colour of blood. The slogan ‘raktadaan mahadaan’ means that ‘blood donation is the greatest donation.’

The English words of the reudh- family are:

Reudh-1: Redruddy, ruby, rubicund

Reudh-2: rubricrubefacientrambunctious

Reudh-3: robustcorroboraterust, rouge

The red blood cells are called ‘erythrocytes’ because the Greek word eruthros means red and cyte means cell.


Latin fidere to trust

Fidere is a verb. Its noun form- the belief, the trust that is shown- is called fides. That is where the English word faith came from.



A friend of yours is going to give a public speech for the first time and is very nervous. “Oh, just look at the audience, half the town is here! God, I wish you had sent a typhoon this morning and drowned this hall and the whole city! Why did they all have to come and see me making a fool of myself? Oh, I was such an oaf to give my name!”

You bolster his sagging spirit by telling him that he has prepared well and that all his doubts are unfounded. “You will rock!” you tell him. “Just have faith in yourself, have confidence.”

That is what ‘confidence’ is, faith.

To remain faithful is to show fidelity or fealtyFiduciary matters are matters related to faith.


Ruddy: (adj) reddish, having a healthy red colour, bloody.

  • The orchards were ruddy with ripe apples.
  • He was a ruddy-faced, cheerful lad.
  • The decades-old battle between the terrorists and the army in Kashmir has turned the beautiful valley into a ruddy battleground.

Rubicund: (adj) ruddy

Origin: L ruber, red

  • Swati’s husband returned home and went straight to the washroom to shower away the day’s grime. He soon joined her on the dining table, looking fresh and so rubicund, that she couldn’t help joking that his face had one thing in common with the lobsters and crabs— it went into the hot water very black, and came out very red.

Grime: (n) dirt sticking to a surface.

: (n) the heading of a text, which is made distinct from the rest of the text either by writing it in red ink or making it bold and bigger

etc.; a title; category or class; established way of doing something.

Origin: L ruber, red => ‘a heading written in red’ => ‘the heading in a religious text which gave instructions on how to perform a particular

religious ceremony. The heading was traditionally written in red ink to distinguish it from the instructions that followed.’ => ‘protocol’

  • Bomb blasts, hijacks, extortions, attacks on life and public properties are all acts that fall under the rubric of terrorism.
  • Japan, China, Korea, the 10 countries of South East Asia, Australia, New Zealand, and India meet within the rubric of the East Asia Summit.

Rubefacient: (n) a medicinal substance that causes redness of skin.

Origin: L ruber, red + facere, to make =. ‘that which makes (skin) red’

: (adj) difficult to control and making a lot of noise.

  • The police found it very difficult to protect the politician from the rambunctious crowd which had gathered outside the court and was shouting angry slogans against him and seemed thirsty for his blood. This was his first public appearance after he was found culpable in the distribution of fake medicines which had killed more than hundred labourers.

Robust: (adj) healthy and strong.

Origin: L ruber, red -> robur, an oak with reddish heartwood => ‘as strong as an oak’

  • He was a robust young man.
  • The company was robust.
  • The U.S. wants a robust relationship with India.

Corroborate: (v) to support a claim with evidence, validate.

Origin: L co-, intensive + robur, oak, strength => ‘to strengthen (a claim)’

  • The police produced witnesses to corroborate their version of the encounter in which seven young men were killed.
  • Sunny said that he got the bruise because he had fallen off his cycle. Bunny corroborated his story. After all, Sunny had promised to buy him a chocolate.

Typhoon: (n) A violent cyclone that occurs in the western Pacific or the Indian Oceans.

Origin: Related with the Hindi word toofaan.

: (n) a stupid person.

Bolster: (n) a long, cylindrical pillow; (v) to support (like a pillow does), to encourage

  • In every mujra scene that comes out of Bollywood, one can see fat, paan-chewing seths who recline on bolsters, watch the nautch girl with eyes full of lust and throw notes over her.

Flag: (v) drop to one side (like a drooping flower) because of lack of energy.

The movie is supposed to be a thriller and keep you at the edge of your seat but its narrative starts flagging after the first hour, and picks up only at the end.

Unfounded: (adj) with no foundation, baseless.

: (n) faithfulness

Origin: L fidelis, faith

  • Marriage demands fidelity from both partners.
  • The servant’s fidelity to his master surpassed a dog’s.

Fealty: (n) faithfulness

Origin: L fides, faith

  • In the recruitment ceremony, the new soldiers swore unwavering fealty to their king. They vowed to give their life for him.

Fiduciary: (adj) based on good faith (n) a person who acts on behalf of another (like in managing that person’s property or finances) and

promises to do his duty honestly and faithfully.

Origin: L fides, faith.

  • As per the law, the members of a rock band are in a fiduciary relationship with each other. They are supposed to act in good faith and share the credit as well as the financial benefits of their work. If one of them refuses to do that, the other members of the group can move to court to claim their share.


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