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D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930) was an eminent English novelist. Read the following excerpt from his novel ‘Women in Love.’ It will paint a vivid image of the word ‘poignant’ in your mind. This novel tells the love stories of two sisters. One of them is Ursula Brangwen. The ‘he’ referred to in the passage below is Rupert Birkin, the lover of Ursula.


“When he was gone Ursula felt such a poignant hatred for him, that all her brain seemed turned into a sharp crystal of fine hatred. Her whole nature seemed sharpened and intensified into a pure dart of hate. She could not imagine what it was. It merely took hold of her, the most poignant and ultimate hatred, pure and clear and beyond thought. She could not think of it at all, she was translated beyond herself. It was like a possession. She felt she was possessed. And for several days, she went about possessed by this exquisite force of hatred against him. It surpassed anything she had ever known before, it seemed to throw her out of the world into some terrible region where nothing of her old life held good. She was quite lost and dazed, really dead to her own life.


It was so completely incomprehensible and irrational. She did not know WHY she hated him, her hate was quite abstract. She had only realised with a shock that stunned her, that she was overcome by this pure transportation. He was the enemy, fine as a diamond, and as hard and jewel-like, the quintessence of all that was inimical.


She thought of his face, white and purely wrought, and of his eyes that had such a dark, constant will of assertion, and she touched her own forehead, to feel if she were mad, she was so transfigured in white flame of essential hate.


It was not temporal, her hatred, she did not hate him for this or for that; she did not want to do anything to him, to have any connection with him. Her relation was ultimate and utterly beyond words, the hate was so pure and gemlike. It was as if he were a beam of essential enmity, a beam of light that did not only destroy her, but denied her altogether, revoked her whole world. She saw him as a clear stroke of uttermost contradiction, a strange gem-like being whose existence defined her own non-existence. When she heard he was ill again, her hatred only intensified itself a few degrees, if that were possible. It stunned her and annihilaated her, but she could not escape it. She could not escape this transfiguration of hatred that had come upon her.”


Latin truncare to cut off

If you cut of all the branches of a tree, what remains is called the ‘trunk’. This word is also used for the body of a man minus his head and limbs. 


The other words from this root are:

Truncare-1: truncatetrench

Truncare-2: trenchanttrencherman

Truncare-3: entrenchretrench


Latin cidere   to cut, kill

In Latin 'to cut,kill' meaning is 'cidere'.


Sumer Pratap Singh was called uxorious by all his friends; his world seemed to start at and end with his wife. But one day, he killed her. He had come home earlier that day and so had seen her talking to Shyam Sundar Sharma, their neighbour, over the fence. He was incensed. How many times had he told her that he did not like her talking to other men, and especially men like this Shyam Sundar, who were adept at glib talk and charming women and still, she did not listen. Shaking with anger, he grabbed her by the elbow, and pushed her inside. Now, seeing her lifeless form on the floor, he thoughtmorosely that without her, his life too had no meaning. He killed himself with the same knife. His final thoughts were: united in life, united in death.


Killing one’s wife is called ‘uxoricide’ and oneself, ‘suicide’ (L. sui-, of oneself).


The words from this and other roots, related with the idea of cutting, are listed below:

Scissors-1: précispreciseconcise

Scissors-2: chiselincisiveexcise, scissors

Scissors-3: abscissionrescindschismschizophrenia


Note: The word ‘scissors’ belongs to the family too.



Greek tomos a cutting, a slice

An ‘atom’ was called so because it was believed that it could not be cut further.


The cutting up of a plant or an animal in order to study its internal structure was called ‘Anatomy’ (Gk. ana-, up). Later on, the word also started being used for the structure thus studied.

Tomos ki tukdi-1: tomedichotomy

Tomos ki tukdi-2: epitomeentomology

Latin frangere  to break

This root is also found in the un-nasalized version, fragere.


When a man breaks his bone, he has a ‘fracture’. ‘Fractions’ are broken numbers. When a ray of light enters a different medium, it appears to break. This phenomenon is called ‘refraction’.


Now, once upon a time, the word fraction also meant ‘a discord’. Can you figure out why? That was because a disagreement is a ‘breaking off’ from the general opinion. When a person disputed with the group and insisted on doing his own thing, he was ‘breaking off’ from the group, at least on that point. And, what did the group call that person? Fractious.


Mia was visiting her friend Rupali at the retail store. Rupali worked as a sales executive there. Mia had been there only five minutes when a burly middle-aged man came there and threw a sari on the counter. Flourishing a bill in his hand, he complained that his wife had bought the sari a day before and upon going home, had found patches of faded colour in its mid-length. Rupali apologized for the oversight. She quickly proceeded to show him other saris so that he could select one of them as a replacement. “Yeah, tomorrow I’ll have to come to replace these then,” the customer taunted. “You think I’m free, don’t you? Do you even know how much readjustment I had to do in my schedule to replace this stupid defective sari?” he asked crankily. “We sincerely apologise, sir,” Rupali replied. “What will your ‘sorry’ do now?” The customer replied. “You’ve already caused the harassment that you had to. What a third-rate service your store provides and that too in today’s time of cut-throat competition! People like you can’t survive in this game, just mark my words.” Rupali packed the sari he had gruffly pointed to. He continued with his tirade, “Thank your god that I am not complaining about you to the manager. Now if there is any defect in this new sari, be sure you won’t be behind this counter anymore.” Rupali replied, “Please be assured sir. Madam will love this new sari.”


When the man was finally gone, Mia rolled her eyes and said, “Oh my god, that man was as fractious as a teething baby! I really feel for his poor wife, who would have to bear his tantrums every day; her life would be living hell! But you tell me Rupali, how do you manage to handle such irate customers so calmly?”


Frangere-1: frail

Frangere- 2: frangibleanfractuous

Frangere-3: infractioninfringement

Frangere-4: defrayrefrain

Frangere-5: suffrageirrefragable

Frangere-6: fracasrefractory



Latin crepare  to crack

In Latin 'to crack' meaning is 'crepare'.


‘The Parasite’ is a novelette by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Its protagonist is Austin Gilroy, a young physiologist. He comes in contact with Miss Penclosa, a middle-aged woman with psychic powers. Unfortunately for him, she falls in love with him and puts him in a trance to make him respond to her love. When Gilroy comes back to his senses, he rebuffs her angrily. She then starts using occult to trouble him. Here is an excerpt from his diary entry:


“April 16. The woman is ingenious in her torments. She knows how fond I am of my work, and how highly my lectures are thought of. So it is from that point that she now attacks me. It will end, I can see, in my losing my professorship, but I will fight to the finish. She shall not drive me out of it without a struggle.


I was not conscious of any change during my lecture this morning save that for a minute or two I had a dizziness and swimminess which rapidly passed away. On the contrary, I congratulated myself upon having made my subject (the functions of the red corpuscles) both interesting and clear. I was surprised, therefore, when a student came into my laboratory immediately after the lecture, and complained of being puzzled by the discrepancy between my statements and those in the text books. He showed me his note-book, in which I was reported as having in one portion of the lecture championed the mostoutrageous and unscientific heresies. Of course I denied it, and declared that he had misunderstood me, but on comparing his notes with those of his companions, it became clear that he was right, and that I really had made some most preposterous statements. Of course I shall explain it away as being the result of a moment of aberration, but I feel only too sure that it will be the first of a series. It is but a month now to the end of the session, and I pray that I may be able to hold out until then.”


‘Discrepancy’, as you may have seen, is a word from the root crepare. The crepare words are:


Crepare-1: decrepitdiscrepancy

Crepare-2: cravencrevice



Latin pars a share, part

The word ‘part’ itself is from this root, as are ‘particle’, ‘party’ and ‘participate’.


The other words are:

Pars-1: Parsepartisanpartake

Pars-2: bipartitereparteecoparcener

IE yeug- to join

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